Prolapse Incidence in Swine Breeding Herds Is a Cause for Concern.  Supakorn, C., Stock, J.D., Hostetler, C. and Stalder, K.J. (2017)  Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 7, 85-97. 

Summary: Beginning in the fall of 2014 there has been a general and widespread increase in the incidence of prolapse in the U.S. swine herd. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the incidence, causative factors and treatment of rectal, vaginal, uterine and preputial prolapses. Rectal and vaginal prolapses are most common in swine when compared to other prolapse types. The cause of prolapses supports a fixation mechanism failure overcome by pressure on or weakening of support tissue. The fundamental factors affecting the incidence for prolapses are many and include factors related to nutrition, physiology, hormones, genetics, environment and other disease factors such as chronic diarrhea, cough, and dystocia. Treatment of prolapsed swine includes surgical and therapeutic management that can lead to complete recovery. However, in most cases, euthanasia is the final result. Economic loss was calculated at approximately $5220 dollars/year/1000 sows. 

Identification of putative factors contributing to pelvic organ prolapse in sows. Ross, J.W. (2019). National Pork Board Research Report.  

 Take home points:

 • An industry-wide survey was conducted with 104 sow farms representing approximately 400,000 sows and nearly half of the US swine industry, including large integrated companies and many independently owned sow farms. 

• Multiple factors that may contribute to POP in sows were identified, enabling the design of subsequent studies in specific areas of interest. 

• Many areas of presumed potential influence on pelvic organ prolapse have been shown to be minimally influential if at all. 

• A perineal scoring system was developed that is reproducible and indicative of risk of prolapse for individual sows.